Queen of Hearts


Willem de Kooning, American, b. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1904–1997

Oil and charcoal on fiberboard, 46 1/8 x 27 5/8 in. (117 x 70 cm)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, Gift of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1966

Accession Number: 66.1223

The artist, New York, from 1943
Martha Jackson, New York, 1954-1962
Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, to 20 March 1962
Joseph H. Hirshhorn, New York, 20 March 1962-17 May 1966
Gift of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1966
* An early, variant title for this painting was Pink Woman.
** Dated 1943-46 on an invoice from Martha Jackson Gallery, March 20, 1962.

Exhibition History:
MARTHA JACKSON GALLERY, New York. "Woman," 16 September-3 October 1953.
UNIVERSITY GALLERIES, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. "Nebraska Art Association Sixty-fourth Annual Exhibition," 28 February-28 March 1954, cat, ill, n.p. (listed as Pink Woman).
MARTHA JACKSON GALLERY, New York. "Recent Oils by Willem de Kooning," 9 November-3 December 1955, no. 9, ill. (Dated 1943.)
MARTHA JACKSON GALLERY, New York. "Selections 1934-1961: American Artists from the Collection of Martha Jackson," 6 February-3 March 1962, p. 10, ill. p. 11.
TRABIA-MORRIS GALLERY, New York. "Art of the Americas," 16 October-10 November 1962, cat., ill.
WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, New York. "The Friends Collect," 7 May-16 June 1964, no. 32.
SMITH COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART, Northampton, Massachusetts. "Willem de Kooning: a Retrospective Exhibition from Public and Private Collections," 8 April-2 May 1965, no. 5. TOUR: THE HAYDEN GALLERY, MIT, 10 May-16 June 1965.
STEDELIJK MUSEUM, Amsterdam. "Willem de Kooning," 22 September-
17 November 1968, no. 14, ill. MUSEUM OF MODERN ART INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATING TOUR: TATE GALLERY, London, 5 December-26 January 1969; MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, New York, 3 March-27 April no. 16, ill. p. 41; THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO, 16 May-6 July; LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART, 28 July-14 September 1969.
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, New York. "New York Painting and Sculpture 1940-1970," 18 October 1969-8 February 1970, cat. no. 56, ill. p. 134.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Inaugural Exhibition," 18 October 1974-15 September 1975, plate 502, p. 357; p. 681.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "The Golden Door: Artist-Immigrants of America, 1876-1976," 20 May-20 October 1976, cat. no. 110, ill. p. 256.
STADTISCHE KUNSTALLE, Dusseldorf. "2 Jahrzehnte amerikanische Malerei: 1920-1940," 10 June-12 August 1979, cat. no. 147, ill. p. 135. TOUR: KUNSTHAUS, Zurich, 23 August-28 October 1979; PALAIS DES BEAUX-ARTS, Brussels, 10 November-30 December 1979.
NASSAU COUNTY MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Roslyn, New York. "The Abstract Expressionists and Their Precursors," 17 January-22 -March 1981, no. 13.
WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, New York. "Willem de Kooning:
Drawings, Paintings, Sculpture," 15 December 1983-26 February 1984, ill. p. 150. TOUR: AKADEMIE DER KUNSTE, Berlin, 11 March-29 April 1984; MUSEE NATIONAL D'ART MODERNE, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 28 June-24 September, ill. p. 65.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Willem de Kooning from the Hirshhorn Museum Collection," 21 October 1993-9 January 1994, no. 2, pp. 60-61. TOUR: FUNDACIO "LA CAIXA," CENTRE CULTURAL, Barcelona, 17 February-3 April 1994; HIGH MUSEUM OF ART, Atlanta, 13 September-27 November 1994; MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston, 10 December 1994-19 February 1995; MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Houston, 19 March-28 May 1995.
SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION, New York. "Between Art and Life: From Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art," cat. TOUR: CENTRO CULTURAL FUNDACIO " LA CAIXA," Barcelona, 28 January-28 March 1999; SCHIRN KUNSTHALLE, Frankfurt, 21 April-4 July 1999.
MUSEE D'ART AMERICAIN GIVERNY, France. "American Moderns, 1900-1950," 25 July-31 October 2000, cat. no. 16.
MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, New York. "de Kooning: A Retrospective," 18 September 2011-9 January 2012, colorplate 22, p. 105 (color detail, p. 106); figs. 1-2 (color), pp. 107-108; p. 199.

Published References:
PORTER, FAIRFIELD. "Reviews and Previews," Art News 54 (November 1955), p. 49
STEINBERG, LEO. "Month in Review," Arts Magazine 30 (November 1955), p. 46, ill. p. 47
C.L. "Martha Jackson's Collection," Art News 60/10 (February 1962), p. 54
PEASE, JR., ROLAND, F. "Gallery Previews in New York," Pictures on
Exhibit 25/6 (March 1962), p. 23
RAYNOR, VIVEN. "In the Galleries: Art of the Americas," Arts Magazine
37 (December 1962), p. 46
ALLOWAY, LAWRENCE. Francis Bacon (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1963), p. 17
DENBY, EDWIN. "My Friend de Kooning," Art News Annual 29 (1964),
ill. p. 89
LIPPARD, LUCY R. "Three Generations of Women: De Kooning's First
Retrospective," Art International 9/8 (November 20, 1965), p. 30
KOZLOFF, MAX. "The Critical Reception of Abstract Expressionism,"
Arts Magazine 40 (December 1965), ill. p. 29
ROSE, BARBARA. American Art Since 1900 (New York: Praeger, 1967),
p. 182, ill. 6-32 (also 2nd rev. ed, 1975, p. 155, ill. 6-28, and 3rd ed., 1977)
GENAUER, EMILY. "De Kooning's Complaint," Newsday (8 March 1969),
p. 14w, ill.
FORGE, ANDREW. "De Kooning in Retrospect," Art News 68 (March
1969), ill. p. 45 (detail)
KRAMER, HILTON. "De Kooning Survey Opens at the Modern," The New
York Times (March 5, 1969), p. 38, ill.
UNSIGNED. "On Exhibition," Studio International 178 (September 1969),
p. 99, ill. no. 29
KRAMER, HILTON. "30 Years of the New York School," The New York Times Magazine (12 October 1969), p. 38, colorplate
JACOBS, JAY. "Collector: Joseph H. Hirshhorn," Art in America 57
(July-August 1969), p. 68
UNSIGNED. "On Exhibition," Studio International 178/914 (September 1969), p. 99.
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, New York. News and Calendar of Events (October 1969), n.p., ill.
SANDLER, IRVING. The Triumph of American Painting: A History of Abstract Expressionism (New York: Praeger, 1970), p. 123, ill. 9-2, p. 124
JACOBS, JAY. "Quality as Well as Quantity: Joseph H. Hirshhorn,"
The Collector in America (New York: Viking, 1971), p. 75
KRAMER, HILTON. "The New York School," Dialogue 3/2 (1970), p. 35, ill.
DRUDI, GABRIELLA. Willem de Kooning (Milan: Fratelli Fabbri, 1972),
ill. 22
STEINBERG, LEO. Other Criteria (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), p. 260, ill. p. 261
VARIAN, ELAYNE H. intro. The Private Collection of Martha Jackson
(College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland, 1973), p. 7
ROSENBERG, HAROLD. Willem de Kooning (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), p. 29, colorplate 34
GARSON, INEZ. Willem de Kooning in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture
Garden (New York: Scala, 1974), color colorplate, no. 2
LERNER, ABRAM, et al. The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), colorplate 502, p. 357, p. 681
LERNER, ABRAM. An Introduction to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture
Garden (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), ill. no. 67
LARSON, PHILIP and PETER SCHJELDAHL. De Kooning Drawings & Sculpture (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1974), n.p., ill. 15 (with wrong caption)
BRACKETT, WARD. When You Paint (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974), ill.
p. 104
KRAMER, HILTON. "The Hirshhorn Museum: an 'Important' collection in a 'Bomb Shelter,'" The New York Times (6 October 1974), p. 29
R[OBERTS], K[EITH]. "Acquisitions of Modern Art by Museums,"
Burlington Magazine 116/860 (November 1974), p. 702, ill. 113
BUTLER, JOSEPH. "America," Connoisseur 187/753 (November 1974): p. 207.
LYNES, RUSSELL. "From Century ago to Just Yesterday at the Hirshhorn," Smithsonian 5/10 (January 1975), p. 48, colorplate p. 47
SUTER, LOLA. "New Hirshhorn Museum Houses Rich Collection,"
Enterprise-Record Chico, California (18 March 1975)
HUDSON, ANDREW. "Washington Letter," Art International 19/6 (15 June 1975): p. 100.
MIYAHARA, YASUHARU. Willem de Kooning--The Angry Youths (Tokyo:
Atsushi Oshita, 1975), p. 68
GLUBOK, SHIRLEY. The Art of America Since World War II (New York:
MacMillan, 1976), p. 18, ill.
LAUTER, ESTELLA. "Homage to Anima: Some Psychological and Cultural
Implications of Willem de Kooning's Images of Woman," Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 59 (1976), pp. 426, 429, ill. p. 428
SHARP YOUNG, MAHONRI. "Letter from the U.S.A.: 'Give me your tired,
your poor,'" Apollo n.s., 104 (November 1976), ill. p. 406
GOLDSTEIN, NATHAN. Painting: Visual and Technical Fundamentals
(New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1978), ill. (and ill. in promotional literature)
YARD, SALLY. "Willem de Kooning's Women," Arts Magazine 53 (November 1978), p. 97
BRACKETT, WARD. When You Paint: A Complete Guide for Practicing
Artists (Connecticut: North Light Publishers, 1979), p. 18
HYAMS, BARRY. Hirshhorn: Medici from Brooklyn (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979), p. 116
YARD, SALLY E. Willem de Kooning: The First Twenty-six Years in New
York, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1980, p. 63, 111-14, fig. 124
SELZ, PETER. Art in Our Times: A Pictorial History, 1890-1980 (New
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich and Harry N. Abrams, 1981), p. 363, fig. 977
GAUGH, HARRY F. Willem de Kooning (New York: Abbeville Press, 1983),
fig. 104, p. 116
PARK, EDWARDS. Treasures of the Smithsonian (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, 1983), ill.
BECK, JAMES. "The Joy of Painting: Willem de Kooning Towards Eighty," Arts Magazine 58 (February 1984), ill. p. 141
JODIDIO, PHILIP. "Peindre le desordre de l'epoque," Connaissance des
Arts no. 388 (June 1984), ill. p. 48
ROSAND, DAVID. "Willem de Kooning: an American Master," Dialogue 67 (January 1985): p. 50.
ROSAND, DAVID. "Portfolio: Willem de Kooning: an American Master," Trends (August 1985): p. 49.
HOBHOUSE, JANET. The Bride Stripped Bare: The Artist and the Nude in the Twentieth Century (London: Jonathan Cape, 1987), no. 219, ill.
WALDMAN, DIANE. Willem de Kooning (New York: Harry N. Abrams with
the National Museum of American Art, 1988), no. 30
WARD, JOHN. American Realist Painting, 1945-1980 (Ann Arbor / London: UMI Research Press, 1989): p.17; fig. 7 p. 19; p. 57.
SHAPIRO, DAVID, and CECILE SHAPIRO. Abstract Expressionism: A Critical Record (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), ill. p. 6
LEWIS, JO ANN. "De Kooning, Reconsidered: The Big Question: Is he America's Greatest Artist?" Washington Post (12 September 1993): p. G7.
EITNER, LORENZ, BETSY G. FRYBERGER, and CAROL M. OSBORNE. The Drawing Collection: Stanford University Museum of Art (Stanford University Museum of Art, 1993): p. 292.
BURCHARD, HANK. "The De Kooning Mystique, Washington Post? (1993).
RICHARD, PAUL. "De Kooning: Driven to Abstraction," The Washington Post (21 October 1993): p. B1, B10.
SUFFIELD, LAURA. "The artist and his patron: De Kooning at the Hirshhorn," The Art Newspaper 32 (November 1993): p. 10.
UNSIGNED. "Let's Go to the Smithsonian," Let's Go! (November 1993).
MARTELLI, TIZIANO. "Buon compleanno signor De Kooning dalle sue donne," (unknown journal) (1993?): p. 26.
SOTHEBY'S NEW YORK. Contemporary Art, Part I: Wednesday, November 10, 1993 at 7pm (New York: Sotheby's, 1993): lot no. 6.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning: Hirshhorn Museum," Journal of the Print World (Fall 1993): p. 46.
UNSIGNED. "Calendar," Museum News (November/December 1993): p. 16.
SMITH, ROBERTA. "De Kooning's 90th Birthday nears, and Hirshhorn leads the tribute," New York Times (4 December 1993): p. C19.
UNSIGNED. "Artist Roy Lichtenstein turns 70; tributes to Willem de Kooning," The Philadelphia Inquirer (5 December 1993): p. H6.
SOL, ADRIAN PIERA. "Willem de Kooning," El Guia. Arte del arco mediterraneo 1 (January/February 1994): p. 128.
CATEFORIS, DAVID. "Willem de Kooning," Art Journal 53/4 (Winter 1994): 86-89.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning, figura clave del expresionismo abstracto," Panorama (February 1994): p. 9.
CASALE, RAMON. "Quelle veneri preistoriche," Arte in (February 1994) p. 39-40.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning," Expo Guia (February 1994): p. 18.
M.F.C. "L'art de l'expressionista abstracte Willem de Kooning arriba per primer cop a Barcelona," Avui (18 February 1994): p. 45.
EFE. "Cincuenta obras de Willem de Kooning se exponen en Barcelona," Barcelona (Cataluna) (18 February 1994).
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning pintorearen obra Bartzelonan," Egunkaria (19 February 1994).
UNSIGNED. "De Kooning, figurativo y abstracto," Este fin de Semana, El Periodico (25 February 1994): p. 10.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning, la clave del arco del expresionismo abstracto," El Punto de las Artes (25 February-3 March 1994): p. 12.
UNSIGNED. Presencia (1994): p. 29.
UNSIGNED. La Brocha (1 March 1994).
EVR. "La violencia del gest o una altra manera d'entendre la ironia," Diari de Girona (3 April 1994): p. 28.
ANFAM, DAVID. "Washington and Barcelona," Burlington Magazine (April 1994): p. 69-70.
HAMMETT, HOLLY. "Off the Shelf: Willem de Kooning from the Hirshhorn Museum Collection," Smithsonian Institution: Research Reports 76 (Spring 1994).
FRISACH, MONTSE. "Willem de Kooning: el arte 'inutil y libre,'" Estrella Magazine (Spring 1994): p. 47-49.
CATEFORIS, DAVID. Willem de Kooning (New York: Rizzoli Art Series, 1994): colorplate no. 2.
UNSIGNED. "Museum and Dealer Catalogues" Drawing 16/1 (May/June 1994): p. 17.
SYLVESTER, DAVID and RICHARD SCHIFF. Willem de Kooning (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994): p. 97.
SPRECHER, MARY. "An abstract look at Kooning," Southern Flair (September 1994).
UNSIGNED. Smithsonian Year 1993: Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ended September 30, 1993 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994): p. 44.
UNSIGNED. "De Kooning Retrospective honors artist's Birthday," Antiques and the Arts Weekly (4 November 1994): p. 99.
TEMIN, CHRISTINE. "Rediscovering de Kooning: Original art star's work returns to Hub," The Boston Globe (9 December 1994): 49, 59.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning at The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston," Gallery Guide/Art Now (December 1994): p. 29.
FORMAN, DEBBIE. Cape Cod Times (1994 or 1995) C1, C6.
UNSIGNED. "Artist's abstract paintings detail visionary insight," Register-Mail (24 December 1994).
UNSIGNED. Art New England (December 1994-January 1995).
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning at The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston," Journal of the Print World (Winter 1995): p. 46
ART NOW/GALLERY GUIDE. (February 1995): p. 32 (back cover).
MFA HOUSTON. Member's Preview Invitation to "Willem de Kooning: from the Hirshhorn Museum Collection," (1995).
CHADWICK, SUSAN. "An important look at Willem de Kooning," The Houston Post: Weekend Calendar (17 March 1995).
JOHNSON, PATRICIA. "Willem de Kooning: abstract women and master strokes define MFA exhibit," Houston Chronicle (18 MArch 1995): p. 1C. 8C.
UNSIGNED. "William de Kooning from the Hirshhorn Museum Collection, MFA Houston Calendar (1995): p. 9-10.
KALIL, SUSAN. "Defining de Kooning," Houston Press (20-26 April 1995): p. 4.
LIEBER, EDVARD. Music to Painting (Concord Jazz, Inc., 1996): CD; CD insert: ill. p. 5.
RATCLIFF, CARTER. The Fate of a Gesture: Jackson Pollock and Postwar Art (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1996): p. 103.
RICHARD, PAUL. "A Life's Strong Currents: the art of Willem de Kooning was like the ever-changing ocean," The Washington Post (20 March 1997): p. B1, B4
YARD, SALLY. Willem de Kooning (New York: Rizzoli, 1997): p. 24.
HASKELL, BARBARA. The American Centurey: Art & Culture 1900-1950 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1999): p. 328.
MORRIS, CATHERINE. The Essential Willem de Kooning (The Wonderland Press, 1999): p. 47.
MESSER, THOMAS. Between Art and Life: From Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art (1999): p. 58.
TERRA FOUNDATION FOR THE ARTS. American Moderns: 1900-1950. Edited by Francesca Rose; published in conjunction with the exhibition at the Musee d'Art Americain Giverny, 25 July-31 October 2000 (Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2000): figure 16.
SOTHEBY'S NEW YORK. A Private American Collection, New York Tuesday, November 12, 2002. (Sotheby's New York, 2002): p. 28.

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Collection, Abstract Expressionism (First Generation)

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