Willem de Kooning, American, b. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1904–1997

Oil and enamel on paper mounted on fiberboard, 36 x 24 1/8 in. (91.4 x 61.3 cm)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Bequest, 1981

Accession Number: 86.1355

Herbert Ferber, New York, by 1954
E. V. Thaw and Co., New York
Lawrence Rubin (Park Arts Gallery), New York, to 10 January 1968
Joseph H. Hirshhorn, New York and Washington, DC, 10 January 1968-31 August 1981
Estate of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1981-1986
Joseph H. Hirshhorn Bequest, 1981

Exhibition History:
CHARLES EGAN GALLERY, New York. "Willem de Kooning," April 1948.
28th VENICE BIENNALE, "Stati Uniti d'America: 2 pittori: de Kooning, Shahn; 3 scultori: Lachaise, Lassaw, Smith," 19 June-17 October 1954, cat. no. 54, p. 395, and Museum of Modern Art separate publication, no. 4, unpaginated
WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, New York. "Willem de Kooning: Drawings, Paintings, Sculpture," 15 December 1983-26 February 1984, cat. no. 161, ill. p. 159. TOUR: AKADEMIE DER KUNSTE, Berlin, 11 March-29 April 1984; MUSEE NATIONAL D'ART MODERNE, CENTRE GEORGES POMPIDOU, Paris, 28 June-24 September 24, p. 71, ill.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Selections from the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Bequest," 7 August-16 November 1986, unpublished checklist, no. 30.
MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, Los Angeles. "Individuals: A Selected History of Contemporary Art, 1945-1968," 6 December 1986-10 January 1988, p. 341, not illustrated.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Willem de Kooning from the Hirshhorn Museum Collection," 21 October 1993 - 9 January 1994, no. 4, p. 63. TOUR: FUNDACIO "LA CAIXA," CENTRE CULTURAL, Barcelona, 17 February -3 April 1994; HIGH MUSEUM OF ART, Atlanta, 13 September - 27 November 1994; MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston, 10 December 1994 - 19 February 1995; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 19 March - 28 May 1995.
IVAM CENTRE JULIO GONZALEZ, Valencia, Spain, "Willem de Kooning," 20 September-2 December 2001, cat. p. 99. TOUR: FUNDACIO LA CAIXA, Madrid, 20 December 2001-23 March 2002.
JEWISH MUSEUM, New York. "Action/Abstraction: Abstract Expressionism and Postwar America," 2 May-21 September 2008. Tour: SAINT LOUIS ART MUSEUM, Missouri, 17 October-25 January 2009; ALBRIGHT-KNOX ART GALLERY, Buffalo, 27 February-31 May.
MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, New York. "de Kooning: A Retrospective," 18 September 2011-9 January 2012, pp. 167-168; colorplate 54, p. 170.

Published References:
HESS, THOMAS B. Willem de Kooning (New York: Braziller, 1959), p. 23, ill. 71. [Note incorrect reference to Zurich as containing letters "ABC" -- these letters appear in Noon. Later reference to letters "ZOT" in Zurich is correct.]
DRUDI, GABRIELLA. Willem de Kooning (Milan: Fratelli Fabbri, 1972), p. 20, ill. 32.
ROSENBERG, HAROLD. Willem de Kooning (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1974), ill. plate 49.
GARSON, INEZ. Willem de Kooning in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (New York: Scala, 1974), no. 5.
RICHARD, PAUL. " Hirshhorn: A Collector's Touch," The Washington Post (August 9, 1986), p. D8.
STUCKEY, CHARLES F. "Bill de Kooning and Joe Christmas," Art in America (March 1980), pp. 70 and 79, n. 7.
SCHUG, ALBERT. Die 100 Schonsten Gemalde der Welt (Koln: Naumann & Gobel Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990): p. 14+.
MARTIN, JENNIFER, et al. L'art des Etats-Unis (Citadelles & Mazenod, 1992): no. 597, p. 567.
RICHARD, PAUL. "De Kooning: Driven to Abstraction," The Washington Post (21 October 1993): B1, B10.
SUFFIELD, LAURA. "De Kooning at the Hirshhorn," The Art Newspaper 32 (November 1993): p. 10.
ZILCZER, JUDITH. "William de Kooning from the Hirshhorn Collection," American Art Review 5/5 (Fall 1993): 104-5.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning: Hirshhorn Museum," Journal of the Print World (Fall 1993).
GUAY, HERVE. "Willem de Kooning ou l'art dans sa totalite," Le Devoir (27-28 November 1993): C12.
CARNEGIE, M.D.. "Insides Out," Washington City Paper (10 December 1993): p. 52.
SMITH, ROBERTA. "De Kooning's 90th Birthday nears, and Hirshhorn leads the tribute," New York Times (14 December 1993): C19.
CATEFORIS, DAVID. "Willem de Kooning," Art Journal 53/4 (Winter 1994): 86-89.
UNSIGNED. "Exhibition," The European (10 February 1994)
UNSIGNED. "De Kooning, la proxima semana en Barcelona," El Punto de las Artes (11-17 February 1994).
GAFAROT, XAVIER. "Barcelona acoge desde hoy la unica mustra europea de De Kooning," Diario 16 (18 February 1994).
UNSIGNED. "La Fundacion La Caixa exhibe una muestra univa de Willem de Kooning," El Diario (18 February 1994).
EFE. "El creador americano De Kooning exhibe en Barcelona una antologica de 50 obras," Cordoba (18 February 1994).
EFE. "Una muestra reune 50 obras de Willem de Kooning ensu 90 aniversario," El Progreso (19 February 1994): p. 61.
ZILCZER, JUDITH. "Willem de Kooning," Art de l'arc mediterraneen 7 (February 1994): p. 18.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning, figura clave del expresionismo abstracto," Panorama (February 1994): p. 8.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning," Arte Omega (February-March 1994): p. 53.
UNSIGNED. "Cultura," El Temps (8 March 1994).
JBC. "De Kooning en Barcelona," Tendencias (March 1994): p. 33.
SCHIFF, BENNETT. "For de Kooning, painting has been 'a way of living,'" Smithsonian 25/1 (April 1994): 108-119.
SYLVESTER, DAVID and RICHARD SCHIFF. Willem de Kooning: Paintings (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1994): p. 94.
DIXON, GLENN. "Art for Art's Sake," City's Paper (27 May 1994): p. 34.
UNSIGNED. "Museum and Dealer catalogues," Drawing 16/1 (May-June 1994): p. 17-18.
SPRECHER, MARY. "An abstract look at Kooning," Southern Flair (September 1994).
UNSIGNED. "De Kooning Retrospective honors Artist's Birthday," Antiques and The Arts Weekly (4 November 1994): p. 99.
UNSIGNED. "Willem de Kooning at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston," Journal of the Print World (Winter 1995).
KALIL, SUSIE. "Defining de Kooning," Houston Press (20-26 April 1995): p. 4.
ZILCZER, JUDITH. "Artist and Patron: The formation of the Hirshhorn Museum's Willem de Kooning collection," Journal of the History of Collections 8/1 (1996): 117-125.
YARD, SALLY. Willem de Kooning (New York: Rizzoli, 1997): p. 38.
HACKER ART BOOKS. [Advertisement] (date unknown).
MORRIS, CATHERINE. The Essential Willem de Kooning (Wonderland Press, 1999): p. 56.
RM. "L'IVAM presenta una retrospectiva del pintor abstracte: Willem de Kooning," El Temps (4-10 September 2001): p. 89.
UNSIGNED. "De Kooning en Valencia," El Cultural (19 May 2001): p. 24.
MOLINA, ANGELA. "De Kooning un alma errante," ABC Cultural (8 September 2001): p. 31.
UNSIGNED. [uknown article and publication] (September 2001): p. 99.
UNSIGNED. "Valencia: Willem de Kooning," Marie Claire (October 2001): p. 140.
VALLINA, SONSOLES. "Willem de Kooning y la pintura postmoderna," [unknown publication] (2001).
BLASCO, NURIA. "Willem de Kooning: IVAM Institut Valencia d'art Modern hasta el 2 de Diciembre de 2001," Arte (2001): p. 36.
UNSIGNED. "El Renacimiento y El Orden," Arte y Parte (2001): p. 76.
SOTHEBY'S NEW YORK. A Private American Collection (Tuesday, November 12, 2002): p. 53.
SHIFF, RICHARD. "Amuleto," in Cy Twombly (London: Tate Publishing, 2008), fig. 9, p. 27.

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Collection, Abstract Expressionism (First Generation)

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