Frank Stella, American, b. Malden, Massachusetts, 1936
Copper paint and pencil on canvas, 99 3/8 x 99 1/4 in. (252.3 x 252.1 cm)
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972
Accession Number: 72.277
The artist, New York, to 25 October 1966
Joseph H. Hirshhorn, New York, October 1996-1972
Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972
LEO CASTELLI GALLERY, New York. Frank Stella, 28 April-19 May 1962.
THE JEWISH MUSEUM, New York. Toward a New Abstraction, 19 May 1962-15 September 1963, no.44.
XXXII BIENNALE INTERNAZIONALE D'ARTE, Venice. United States Pavilion, June-September 1964, no. 83, p.279.
PASADENA ART MUSEUM, Pasadena, CA. Three American Painters, 6 July-3 August 1965.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Inaugural Exhibition," 4 October 1974-15 September 1975, pp.751, 759.
INDIANAPOLIS MUSEUM OF ART, Indianapolis, IN. Power: Its Myths and Mores in American Art 1961-1991, 5 September-3 November 1991, no.18, p.44-5. TOUR: AKRON ART MUSEUM, Akron, OH, 18 January-21 March 1992; VIRGINIA MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Richmond, VA, 11 May-12 July 1992.
CENTRO DE ARTE REINA SOFIA, Madrid. Frank Stella, September 1995-January 1996, p. 169, 232. TOUR: HAUS DER KUNST, Munich, Germany, 10 February 1996-21 April 1996, p. 169, 231.
SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Grand re-opening exhibition, 1 July 2006-4 July 2007.
L&M ARTS, New York. "Frank Stella: Black, Aluminum, Copper Paintings," 12 April-2 June 2012, cat.
JUDD, DONALD. "New York Reports: In the Galleries," Arts Magazine, 36, September 1962, p.51.
UNSIGNED. "Venice: The Biennale XXXII," Arts Magazine, 38, May-June 1964, p.77.
KOZLOFF, MAX. "The Inert and the Frenetic," Artforum, 4, March 1966, p.44.
COPLANS, JOHN. Serial Imagery (Greenwich: New York Graphics, 1968) p. 105.
LYNES, RUSSELL. "From Century Ago to Just Yesterday at the Hirshhorn," Smithsonian, 5/10, January 1975, p. 46.
SANDLER, IRVING. The New York School: The Painters and Sculptors of the Fifties (New York: Harper & Row, 1978) no.225, p. 309.
BAIGELL, MATTHEW. A Concise History of American Painting and Sculpture (New York: Harper & Row, 1984) p. 377.
RUBIN, LAWRENCE. Frank Stella Paintings 1958 to 1965: A Catalogue Raisonne (New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1986), no. 80, p. 120, 276.
SANDLER, IRVING. American Art of the 1960s (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).
RIFKIN, NED. Robert Moskowitz (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1989), p. 23, fig. 7.
GUBERMAN, SIDNEY. Frank Stella: An Illustrated Biography (New York: Rizzoli, 1995), p. 67.
BJELAJAC, DAVID. American Art: A Cultural History (London: Laurence King, 2000), p. 362.
BAIGELL, MATTHEW. Artist and Identity in Twentieth-Century America (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p.159.
SOTHEBY'S AUCTION. Contemporary Art from the Douglas S. Cramer Collection (New York: Sotheby's, 14 November 2001), p. 66.
SMITH, ROBERTA. "Laying the Tracks Others Followed: Frank Stella's Early Work at L&M Arts," New York Times (26 April 2012), online edition.
HANKINS, EVELYN C., ed. Robert Irwin: All the Rules Will Change (Washington, DC: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; Munich: DelMonico Books + Prestel, 2016), fig. 7, p. 102.
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Collection, Formalist Abstraction